Now, the characters in my game are going to be humans, and modelling 3D humans is not an easy thing to do unless you’re a pretty experienced 3D artist (which I’m not). Fortunately for me and others like me, there’s a great little free program called MakeHuman that does most of the difficult bits for you! In fact, I would go so far as to say that I probably wouldn’t be building this game at all if it wasn’t for MakeHuman, because I’d be worried about my character models looking so depressingly awful that they’d ruin the whole thing.
MakeHuman is (to me, at least) one of those tools that’s so amazing that it’s almost difficult to believe it really exists. Basically, you start it up and you’re confronted with a 3D human model and a bunch of different controls (mostly sliders) that you can use to change various properties of the human. The sliders on the initial screen control very important properties that affect the shape of the entire human: here you can control gender (a continuum between male and female rather than a binary choice), age (from 1 to 90 years), height, weight, race (as a mix of African, Asian and Caucasian) and a handful of other things. But if you drill down into the other tabs, there are sliders to change just about every detail you can imagine (for example, there are 6 sliders just in the “Nose size” category, and there are also “Nose size detail” and “Nose features” categories!). The quality of the generated models is very good indeed.
As well as giving you a huge amount of control over the shape of your human model, MakeHuman also provides a wealth of other useful features. On the “Materials” tab you can assign skin and eye textures to the model, and there’s also a “Pose/Animate” tab that controls the character’s pose and allows you to add a skeleton for skeletal animation (more on that in a future post). And unless you’re exclusively making naked, hairless characters (not that there’d be anything wrong with that 😉 ), you’ll definitely want to visit the “Geometries” tab to add some hair and clothes to your model. If MakeHuman has a weakness it’s probably that the selection of hair, clothes and other accessories included is a bit barren, but you can make your own using Blender or download ones other people have made from the MakeHuman Community site, which has a much better selection.
As you’ve probably guessed by now, I rather like MakeHuman! I’m only really scratching the surface of it here as this is supposed to be a blog about my game rather than about MakeHuman, but there’s plenty more information on the MakeHuman Community website and elsewhere online if you’re interested.
MakeHuman supports the same OBJ format that I used for exporting the terrain from Blender, but I didn’t use it this time; it doesn’t support all the features of MakeHuman and although this limitation wouldn’t be a problem right now, it will become a problem in the near future. Instead I used Collada, a complex XML-based format that captures a lot more information than OBJ does. Loading Collada files is a lot more involved than loading OBJ, but luckily I already had some C++ code from a previous project that was capable of extracting everything I needed. I modified this to write out the important data (at this point just the basic 3D mesh for the human body as well as accessories like the hair and clothes) to a binary file that I could load into my engine.
I also had to make quite a lot of changes to the engine at this point. When I wrote my last blog post, all it could do was display a single terrain mesh with a single texture mapped onto it. I rewrote the code to include a scene graph system, allowing multiple models to be placed in the 3D world in a hierarchical fashion, and also to support multiple textures. Then I wrote a loader for the models I converted from MakeHuman and added my human to the scene.
(The meshes exported from MakeHuman contain a lot of faces and are very detailed, in fact probably too detailed for my purposes. Fortunately it gives you the option of using a a less detailed but more rough looking “proxy” mesh in the place of the detailed mesh, so that’s what I’m doing for my characters, so that file sizes stay small and rendering isn’t too slow. However, the clothes and hair meshes are still very detailed so I suspect I will end up making my own so as not to bog the game down with too many polygons to deal with, as well as to make them look just how I want).
At this point (once I’d ironed out the inevitable bugs) I had a character in my game world, but all it could do was stand there. I wanted some movement, so I added code allowing me to move the human across the terrain using the keyboard, keeping the model at ground level at all times. I also added a very basic “floating camera” that would follow along behind the character. All of this (the models, the physics, the camera) is very preliminary and will need a lot of improvement in the future, but right now it’s quite cool to see the humans and the terrain working together in the game engine like this.
“But”, you might say, “Why are their arms sticking out like scarecrows’?”. If I’d been arsed to make a video rather than just post still screenshots, you would probably also comment on the fact that they’re sliding along the ground without their legs moving at all. Fear not! My very next step will be to add some animation to the characters. I was originally planning to have that done for this post but once I realised how much work it would be I decided to split it off, so stay tuned for that.